NEW YORK (PIX11) — A smooth airplane ride is the plan for crew members and travelers. But turbulence can change conditions without notice and send luggage flying around the cabin and leave passengers injured.

Airlines, scientists and the federal government are tracking a trend known as extreme turbulence. New research shows turbulence has been increasing.

Atmospheric scientists in England studied the jet stream and found changes related to climate have increased instability in the air and irregular air movements.

Farmingdale State College Aviation Center Director Michael Canders described turbulence as a potentially rapid change in wind speed and direction that can occur because of the heating of the air.

Canders has five decades of experience as a pilot in the military and in the private sector. He said he’s seen an increase in turbulence.

“It’s something the requires attention because of the global changes in climate,” Canders said.

The National Transportation Safety Board also released a report on preventing turbulence-related injuries. It found most people who are injured were not wearing seat belts.

“The biggest challenge for pilots is weather. We all have to deal with it and every time we fly make sure that the weather is conducive to a safe flight. Turbulence is one of those factors associated with understanding what’s going to happen during a flight,” Canders said.

Long Island has a deep history in the aviation industry. This weekend, the 19th annual Bethpage Air Show at Jones Beach will take place. Planes were also manufactured during World War II in the area.